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# Same denominator

There are three different situations to explore when adding fractions with the same denominator. Additions can be where:

- the whole is completed (e.g. \(\frac{1}{4}\) + \(\frac{3}{4}\) = 1)
- the total is less than one (e.g. \(\frac{2}{8}\) + \(\frac{1}{8}\) = \(\frac{3}{8}\))
- the total is greater than one, which involves working with improper fractions and mixed numbers (e.g. \(\frac{2}{3}\) + \(\frac{2}{3}\) = \(\frac{4}{3}\) = 1\(\frac{1}{3}\))

Similarly, subtractions can be taking away from:

- one whole (e.g. 1 – \(\frac{1}{4}\) = \(\frac{3}{4}\))
- a fraction less than one (e.g. \(\frac{3}{8}\) – \(\frac{2}{8}\) = \(\frac{1}{8}\))
- a number greater than one (e.g. 1\(\frac{1}{3}\) – \(\frac{2}{3}\) = \(\frac{2}{3}\))

Both additions and subtractions can be modelled with area diagrams or scenarios such as pieces of pizza. However, modelling these operations on a number line allows the use of counting forwards or backwards along the number line as a solution strategy.

The number line counting model can also help avoid the common misconception of adding the denominators as well as the numerators.

## Number lines

Students solve problems requiring the addition or subtraction of fractions with the same denominator, modelling with area diagrams and a number line. Students begin to realise the strategy of adding the numerators.

## Hit the apple

Using the digital learning object, students create a pair of fractions that add to one. There is a fraction bar representing each fraction and a vertical number line that monitors the progress towards the target of adding to one.